Analysis of the methylation of CpG islands in the CDO1, TAC1 and CHFR genes in pancreatic ductal cancer

Hiroshi Maekawa, Tomoaki Ito, Hajime Orita, Tomoyuki Kushida, Mutsumi Sakurada, Koichi Sato, Alicia Hulbert, Malcolm V. Brock

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


No difference in the gene methylation status of tumor-suppression genes between pancreatic cancer tissues and adjacent non-cancer tissues is observed. The present study investigated whether the promoter CpG islands of the cysteine dioxygenase 1 (CDO1), tachykinin precursor 1 (TAC1) and checkpoint with forkhead and ring finger domains (CHFR) genes were methylated in pancreatic cancer and adjacent non-cancerous pancreatic tissue in order to determine if they could be considered as markers for the detection of pancreatic cancer. A total of 38 Formalin–fixed and paraffin–embedded pancreatic adenocarcinoma tissues and their adjacent non-cancerous specimens from patients with pancreatic cancer, as well as 9 non-cancerous pancreatic samples from patients without pancreatic adenocarcinoma were obtained following surgical resection. The hypermethylation of CpG islands was detected using a methylation–specific quantitative PCR. The methylation values were calculated using the ∆Cq method and were expressed as 2-ΔCq. The 2-ΔCq value of the CDO1 promoter from pancreatic adenocarcinoma specimens was significantly higher compared with that of adjacent non-cancerous and tumor–free pancreatic tissues (P<0.0001 and P=0.0008, respectively). The 2-ΔCq value of the TAC1 promoter of pancreatic adenocarcinoma was also significantly higher compared with that of adjacent non-cancerous tissues and tumor-free pancreatic samples (both P<0.0001). However, there was no significant difference in the 2-ΔCq value of the CHFR promoter among the pancreatic cancer, adjacent non-cancer tissue and tumor-free pancreatic samples. Furthermore, 12 out of the 38 pancreatic adenocarcinoma cases (31.6%) presented some methylation in the CHFR promoter. The results from Kaplan-Meier analysis between CHFR promoter methylation values and the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma demonstrated that CHFR promoter methylation was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis. The methylation values of CDO1 and TAC1 promoters in cancer tissues were higher compared with adjacent tissues. However, whether hypermethylation of CDO1 and TAC1 promoters may serve as a biomarker in the diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma remains unclear.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2197-2204
Number of pages8
JournalOncology Letters
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2020


  • CDO1
  • CHFR
  • Methylation
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • Promoter
  • TAC1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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