Analysis of the cross-effects in a cross-lagged panel study

Steven S. Carroll, Lawrence S. Mayer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Panel studies are statistical studies in which two or more variables are observed for two or more subjects at two or more points in time, Cross-lagged panel studies are comprised of continuous variables which divide naturally into two sets, and often the primary statistical issue is to estimate and test the cross-effects which indicate the degree to which each set is related to the other over time. By taking a regression approach to modeling the relationships, we apply multivariate regression methodology to make inferences about the regression coefficients in a cross-lagged panel model. In particular we develop a test of the hypothesis that the regression coefficients indicating the cross-effects are equal and develop simultaneous confidence bounds for various linear combinations of these regression coefficients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3379-3399
Number of pages21
JournalCommunications in Statistics - Theory and Methods
Issue number11
StatePublished - Jan 1 1986
Externally publishedYes


  • Cross-lagged
  • Multivariate regression
  • Panel analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Statistics and Probability


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