Analysis of Nutrition Practices and Intestinal Failure–Associated Liver Disease in Infants With Intestinal Surgery

Darla R. Shores, Janine E. Bullard, Susan W. Aucott, F. Dylan Stewart, Courtney Haney, Bareng A.S. Nonyane, Kathleen B. Schwarz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Objectives: The incidence of intestinal failure–associated liver disease (IFALD) varies following intestinal surgical intervention in infants, ranging from 25% to 60%. Although IFALD resolves in some infants, 40% of infants who require long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) progress to liver failure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of IFALD at our center among infants requiring intestinal procedures and to assess postoperative feeding practices. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of infants with intestinal surgical procedures before 6 months of age from 2007 to 2012. Infants with preexisting liver disease, other than IFALD, were excluded. The primary outcome was incidence of IFALD during the initial hospitalization. Timing of IFALD development and median time to reach enteral nutrition goals were investigated. Results: The overall incidence of IFALD was 66% (54/82), and among infants requiring >60 days of PN, the incidence was 90% (27/30). Median direct bilirubin of those with IFALD was 7.5 mg/dL. Infants with IFALD were more likely to be premature (29 vs 38 weeks, P <.001), have necrotizing enterocolitis (54% vs 17%, P =.002), and have culture-positive infection (42% vs 7%, P =.001). Among the most recent 24 infants, the median time to introduce enteral nutrition postoperatively was 19 days (interquartile range = 9-27), and the median time to reach 50% of calories from enteral nutrition was 34 days (interquartile range = 23-50). Conclusions: The risk of IFALD is common at our center. Multidisciplinary preventive and therapeutic strategies need to be investigated. Future investigation will focus on the time to reach enteral nutrition goals as a modifiable risk factor.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)29-37
Number of pages9
JournalInfant, Child, and Adolescent Nutrition
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 17 2015


  • cholestasis
  • infant
  • intestinal failure–associated liver disease
  • intestinal rehabilitation
  • neonate
  • short-bowel syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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