An intersectional analysis of historical and contemporary structural racism on non-fatal shootings in Baltimore, Maryland

Mudia Uzzi, Kyle T. Aune, Lea Marineau, Forrest K. Jones, Lorraine T. Dean, John W. Jackson, Carl A. Latkin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction Non-fatal shooting rates vary tremendously within cities in the USA. Factors related to structural racism (both historical and contemporary) could help explain differences in non-fatal shooting rates at the neighbourhood level. Most research assessing the relationship between structural racism and firearm violence only includes one dimension of structural racism. Our study uses an intersectional approach to examine how the interaction of two forms of structural racism is associated with spatial non-fatal shooting disparities in Baltimore, Maryland. Methods We present three additive interaction measures to describe the relationship between historical redlining and contemporary racialized economic segregation on neighbourhood-level non-fatal shootings. Results Our findings revealed that sustained disadvantage census tracts (tracts that experience contemporary socioeconomic disadvantage and were historically redlined) have the highest burden of non-fatal shootings. Sustained disadvantage tracts had on average 24 more non-fatal shootings a year per 10 000 residents compared with similarly populated sustained advantage tracts (tracts that experience contemporary socioeconomic advantage and were not historically redlined). Moreover, we found that between 2015 and 2019, the interaction between redlining and racialized economic segregation explained over one-Third of non-fatal shootings (approximately 650 shootings) in sustained disadvantage tracts. Conclusion These findings suggest that the intersection of historical and contemporary structural racism is a fundamental cause of firearm violence inequities in Baltimore. Intersectionality can advance injury prevention research and practice by (1) serving as an analytical tool to expose inequities in injury-related outcomes and (2) informing the development and implementation of injury prevention interventions and policies that prioritise health equity and racial justice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)85-90
Number of pages6
JournalInjury Prevention
Issue number1
StatePublished - Aug 31 2022


  • Descriptive Epidemiology
  • Firearm
  • Geographical / Spatial analysis
  • Health Disparities
  • Socioeconomic Status
  • Urban

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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