An injectable tissue-engineered embolus prevents luminal recanalization after vascular sclerotherapy

C. Jason Smithers, Adam M. Vogel, Harry P.W. Kozakewich, Deborah A. Freedman, Patricia E. Burrows, Dario O. Fauza, Steven J. Fishman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Background/Purpose: Sclerotherapy for vascular malformations is often limited by luminal recanalization. This study examined whether an injectable tissue-engineered construct could prevent this complication in a rabbit model of venous sclerotherapy. Methods: Ethanol sclerotherapy of a temporarily occluded jugular vein segment was performed in 46 rabbits, which were then divided into 3 groups. Group I (n = 16) had no further manipulations. In groups II (n = 15) and III (n = 15), 0.5 mL collagen hydrogel was injected intraluminally, respectively, devoid of and seeded with autologous fibroblasts. At 1, 4, and 20 to 24 weeks postoperatively, vein segments were examined for patency and resected for histological evaluation. Statistical analysis was by Fisher's Exact test. Results: All vein segments were occluded at 1 and 4 weeks in all groups, despite histological evidence of progressive endothelial ingrowth. However, at 20 to 24 weeks, angiography demonstrated restoration of vessel patency in groups I (3/6) and II (3/5), but not in group III (0/6; P =. 043), in which histology confirmed an obliterated lumen for all vessels. Conclusion: An injectable, fibroblast-based, engineered construct prevents midterm to long-term recanalization in a leporine model of vascular sclerotherapy. This novel therapeutic approach may prevent recurrence of vascular malformations after sclerotherapy, thus reducing the need for repeated procedures and morbid operative resections.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)920-925
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of pediatric surgery
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Congenital vascular malformation
  • Endothelial recanalization
  • External jugular vein
  • Fibroblasts
  • Rabbit
  • Sclerotherapy
  • Thrombus organization
  • Tissue engineering
  • Venous malformation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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