An Egg Intervention Improves Dietary Intakes but Does Not Fill Intake Gaps for Multiple Micronutrients among Infants in Rural Bangladesh

Monica M. Pasqualino, Saijuddin Shaikh, John McGready, Md Tanvir Islam, Hasmot Ali, Tahmeed Ahmed, Keith P. West, Munirul Alam, Md Iqbal Hossain, Alain B. Labrique, Amanda C. Palmer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Eggs are nutrient-rich. Strengthening evidence of the impact of egg consumption on dietary quality can inform complementary feeding guidance. Objectives: We aimed to assess the effect of an egg intervention on dietary intakes among infants aged 6–12 mo in rural Bangladesh. Methods: We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial allocating clusters (n = 566) to enteric pathogen control or placebo treatment, with daily provision of a protein-rich meal, isocaloric meal, egg, or control. Nutrition education was provided to all arms. Our focus here is on the egg and control arms. Infants were enrolled at 3 mo. From 6 mo, we visited households weekly to distribute eggs and measure compliance. A semistructured feeding questionnaire assessed 24-h intake at 6, 9, and 12 mo. Assessments were repeated in ∼10% of subjects 2–29 d later. Using NCI SAS macros, we estimated usual intake distributions for energy, protein, fat, and 18 micronutrients and the proportion meeting intake recommendations. We compared the outcomes between the arms using clustered bootstrapping. Results: Data were available from 757 infants (137 clusters) and 943 infants (141 clusters) in the egg and control arms, respectively. In the egg arm compared with the control arm, the mean usual intakes were higher for energy (610 compared with 602 kcal/d, 9 mo; 669 compared with 658 kcal/d, 12 mo), crude protein (2.2 compared with 1.7 g/(kg·d), 9 mo; 2.4 compared with 1.9 g/(kg·d), 12 mo), available protein (2.0 compared with 1.6 g/(kg·d), 9 mo; 2.1 compared with 1.8 g/(kg·d), 12 mo), and for 13 and 14 micronutrients at 9 and 12 mo, respectively. The proportion meeting intake recommendations for most micronutrients was higher in the egg arm but remained <50% for 15 and 13 micronutrients at 9 and 12 mo, respectively. Conclusions: Daily egg consumption improved dietary intakes among Bangladeshi infants, but was insufficient to meet multiple micronutrient intake recommendations, demonstrating the need to be coupled with other strategies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1199-1210
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Volume153
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2023

Keywords

  • South Asia
  • animal source foods
  • dietary intakes
  • eggs
  • infants

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)

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