Pharmacologic inhibition of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor can reduce the neurologic injury associated with hypothermic circulatory arrest; however, other receptor subtypes, such as the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoazole-4-propionic acid/kainate or AMPA/kainate subtype, may predominate in the adult brain. In this experiment, a selective AMPA antagonist, NBQX, was used in a canine survival model of hypothermic circulatory arrest. Twelve male dogs (20 to 25 kg) were placed on closed-chest cardiopulmonary bypass, subjected to 2 hours of hypothermic circulatory arrest at 18°C, and rewarmed on cardiopulmonary bypass. All were mechanically ventilated and monitored for 20 hours before extubation and survived for 3 days. Six dogs received NBQX beginning 2 hours after arrest (3 mg/kg for 3 hours then 1.5 mg/kg for 2 hours). Control dogs received vehicle only. Neurologic recovery was assessed every 12 hours using a species-specific behavior scale that yielded a neurodeficit score ranging from 0 (normal) to 500 (brain dead). After sacrifice at 72 hours, brains were examined by receptor autoradiography and histologically for patterns of selective neuronal necrosis and scored blindly from 0 (normal) to 100 (severe injury). Dogs given NBQX had better neurologic function compared with controls (neurodeficit score, 58.6 ± 15 versus 204 ± 30; p < 0.004) and had less neuronal injury (18.2 ± 3 versus 52.5 ± 6; p < 0.004). Densitometric receptor autoradiography revealed preservation of neuronal NMDA receptor expression only in dogs given NBQX. These results suggest that antagonism of the non-NMDA glutamate receptor AMPA may be neuroprotective in adults after hypothermic circulatory arrest.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine