Alternatives to oral estrogen replacement, including the transdermal patch, deliver estradiol in a constant manner, produce more physiologic estrone and estradiol levels than oral therapy, and avoid the first-pass effect on hepatic protein synthesis. Transdermal patches and estradiol implants have been demonstrated to produce favorable lipid profiles, prevent bone loss, relieve vasomotor symptoms, and improve urogenital atrophy. Vaginal estrogen is an effective treatment for vaginal atrophy. The advantages and disadvantages of each of the hormonal alternatives to oral estrogen replacement are discussed.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||27|
|Journal||Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America|
|State||Published - Jan 1 1994|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Obstetrics and Gynecology