Alternatives: Refinement, reduction, and replacement of animal use in the life sciences

Alan M. Goldberg, Kimberly Drnec

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

2 Scopus citations


In 1954, University Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW) engaged two scientists, William Russell and Rex Burch, to write a book on humane experimental technique. The book, “The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique,” published in 19591 demonstrated with great clarity the impact of humanity on scientific experiments and comprehensively described why humane techniques are important, not only ethically, but also scientifically. They introduced essential methodology to achieve humane experimental technique. This methodology encompassed the concepts of refinement, reduction, and replacement - the Three Rs as applied to experimental protocols (see also Chapter 18).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationHandbook of Laboratory Animal Science, Second Edition
Subtitle of host publicationEssential Principles and Practices
PublisherCRC Press
Number of pages7
ISBN (Electronic)9781420040913
ISBN (Print)0849310865, 9780849310867
StatePublished - Jan 1 2002

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • veterinary(all)
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)


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