Alternative Testing Models For Testing Chemical Toxicity

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


A new comprehensive approach is being developed for testing chemicals for safety that rely on assays using tissue culture models, algorithms, and nonmammalian organisms. The approach is a distinct departure from the historic models using animals and is the result of the lack of data on the safety of thousands of chemicals, research showing important differences in response to xenobiotic chemicals between humans and test animals, and society's concern for the humane use of animals. The article will introduce the reader to the history of animal models and briefly discuss a wide range of models that are currently in use and new models under development. The National Academy report on Toxicity Testing in the 21st century is explained along with ToxCast, which comprises, in part, the EPA's responses to the report. The reader is introduced to new advances in the development of organ-on-a-chip models to mimic whole body physiology and that have the potential of offering an apical test that better recapitulates responses to xenobiotic chemicals. More in-depth knowledge of the topics covered can be attained by further readings compiled by the authors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationToxicology Testing and Evaluation
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)9780081006122
ISBN (Print)9780081006016
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018


  • 3Rs
  • Carcinogenesis
  • Chemical safety
  • Corrosiveness
  • Draize test
  • Endocrine disruptor
  • Mutagenesis
  • Quantitative structure activity relationships
  • Skin sensitization
  • ToxCast

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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