Alloimplant extrusion: A link between invertebrate and vertebrate defense systems?

William M. Baldwin, Nicholas Cohen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


An immunologically dependent encapsulation-extrusion mechanism causes salamanders to extrude partially rejected subcutaneous implants of normal and neoplastic allogeneic tissues. This reaction occurs more frequently in sensitized hosts and is preferentially expressed when animals are implanted and maintained in the cold and then transferred to the warm. These data suggest the hypothesis that vertebrate cellular and humoral immunity may have evolved by modifying and increasing the survival value of foreign body reactions of primitive invertebrates.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)73-79
Number of pages7
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 1975
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Genetics


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