Patients age ≥55 years with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) fare poorly with conventional chemotherapy, with a 5-year overall survival (OS) of ∼20%. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors and novel B cell-targeted therapies can improve outcomes, but rates of relapse and death in remission remain high. Allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation (alloBMT) provides an alternative consolidation strategy, and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) facilitates HLA-mismatched transplantations with low rates of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The transplantation database at Johns Hopkins was queried for patients age ≥55 years who underwent alloBMT for ALL using PTCy. The database included 77 such patients. Most received reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) (88.3%), were in first complete remission (CR1) (85.7%), and had B-lineage disease (90.9%). For the entire cohort, 5-year relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were 46% (95% confidence interval [CI], 34% to 57%) and 49% (95% CI, 37% to 60%), respectively. Grade III-IV acute GVHD occurred in only 3% of patients, and chronic GVHD occurred in 13%. In multivariable analysis, myeloablative conditioning led to worse RFS (hazard ratio [HR], 4.65; P = .001), whereas transplantation in CR1 (HR, .30; P = .004) and transplantation for Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) ALL versus T-ALL (HR, .29; P = .03) were associated with improved RFS. Of the 54 patients who underwent RIC alloBMT in CR1 for B-ALL, the 5-year RFS and OS were 62% (95% CI, 47% to 74%) and 65% (95% CI, 51% to 77%), respectively, with a 5-year relapse incidence of 16% (95% CI, 7% to 27%) and an NRM of 24% (95% CI, 13% to 36%). RIC alloBMT with PTCy in CR1 represents a promising consolidation strategy for B-ALL patients age ≥55 years.
- Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
- Allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation
- Posttransplantation cyclophosphamide
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine
- Immunology and Allergy
- Cell Biology