Air nicotine levels in public places in Ahmedabad, India: Before and after implementation of the smoking ban

Jingyan Yang, Bhavesh Modi, Stephen Tamplin, Mira Aghi, Paresh Dave, Joanna Cohen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Aim: To compare air nicotine levels in public places in Ahmedabad, India, before (June 2008) and after (January, 2010) the implementation of a comprehensive smoking ban which was introduced in October 2008. Materials and Methods: Air nicotine concentrations were measured by sampling of vapor-phase nicotine using passive monitors. In 2008 (baseline), monitors were placed for 5-7 working days in 5 hospitals, 10 restaurants, 5 schools, 5 government buildings, and 10 entertainment venues, of which 6 were hookah bars. In 2010 (follow-up), monitors were placed in 35 similar venues for the same duration. Results: Comparison of the overall median nicotine concentration at baseline (2008) (0.06 μg/m 3 Interquartile range (IQR): 0.02-0.22) to that of follow-up (2010) (0.03 μg/m 3 IQR: 0.00-0.13), reflects a significant decline (% decline = 39.7, P = 0.012) in exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS). The percent change in exposure varied by venue-type. The most significant decrease occurred in hospitals, from 0.04 μg/m [3] at baseline to concentrations under the limit of detection at follow-up (%decline = 100, P < 0.001). In entertainment venues, government offices, and restaurants, decreases in SHS exposure also appeared evident. However, in hookah bars, air nicotine levels appeared to increase (P = 0.160). Conclusion: Overall, SHS exposure was significantly reduced in public places after the smoke-free legislation came into force. However, nicotine concentrations were still detected in most of the venues indicating imperfect compliance with the comprehensive ban.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)27-32
Number of pages6
JournalIndian Journal of Community Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015


  • Air nicotine monitoring
  • second-hand smoke
  • smoke-free law
  • smoking ban

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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