Aging-Associated Cardiovascular Changes and Their Relationship to Heart Failure

James B. Strait, Edward G. Lakatta

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

298 Scopus citations


Aging represents a convergence of declining cardioprotective systems and increasing disease processes that is fertile ground for the development of heart failure. Fifty percent of all heart failure diagnoses and 90% of all heart failure deaths occur in individuals older than 70. This article discusses the microscopic and macroscopic changes in cardiovascular structure, function, protective systems, and disease associated with aging. In addition to outlining important clinical considerations and conditions in older persons, the link between normal aging and the elevated risk for development of stage B heart failure is explained and potential therapeutic pathways are highlighted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)143-164
Number of pages22
JournalHeart Failure Clinics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Cardiac function
  • Cardiac reserve
  • Cardiovascular aging
  • Heart failure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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