Age-related changes in motor subtle signs among girls and boys with ADHD

W. R. Cole, S. H. Mostofsky, J. C.Gidley Larson, M. B. Denckla, E. M. Mahone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

95 Scopus citations


Objective: To examine differences in age-related improvement in motor speed and neurologic subtle signs (overflow and dysrhythmia) among boys and girls with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Diagnosis of ADHD was determined by structured parent interview and administration of ADHD-specific and broad behavior rating scales. Motor function was assessed using the revised Physical and Neurological Assessment of Subtle Signs. Three primary outcome variables were obtained: 1) total time, 2) total overflow, and 3) total dysrhythmia. Effects of age, group, and sex were assessed. Results: Both control and ADHD groups showed improvement on timed tasks with age; however, controls were consistently faster across the age span. Controls and girls with ADHD showed steady age-related reduction of overflow and dysrhythmia, whereas boys with ADHD had little improvement in these signs through age 14 years. Conclusion: Results indicated that girls with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) performed similarly to age-matched controls on a quantified motor examination. These results parallel patterns of findings from neuroimaging studies, in which neurologic anomalies in areas related to motor control are present in boys with ADHD, but more equivocal in girls with ADHD. Sex-related differences observed in children with ADHD likely extend beyond symptom presentation to development of motor control, and are likely related to earlier brain maturation in girls.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1514-1520
Number of pages7
Issue number19
StatePublished - Nov 4 2008

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology


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