Advances in the Understanding and Treatment of Male Urethritis

Laura H. Bachmann, Lisa E. Manhart, David H. Martin, Arlene C. Seña, Jordan Dimitrakoff, Jørgen Skov Jensen, Charlotte A. Gaydos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis are well-documented urethral pathogens, and the literature supporting Mycoplasma genitalium as an etiology of urethritis is growing. Trichomonas vaginalis and viral pathogens (herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and adenovirus) can cause urethritis, particularly in specific subpopulations. New data are emerging regarding the potential role of bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria in urethritis, although results are inconsistent regarding the pathogenic role of Ureaplasma urealyticum in men. Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma parvum do not appear to be pathogens. Men with suspected urethritis should undergo evaluation to confirm urethral inflammation and etiologic cause. Although nucleic acid amplification testing would detect N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis (or T. vaginalis if utilized), there is no US Food and Drug Administration-approved clinical test for M. genitalium available in the United States at this time. The varied etiologies of urethritis and lack of diagnostic options for some organisms present treatment challenges in the clinical setting.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S763-S769
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
StatePublished - Dec 15 2015


  • Chlamydia trachomatis
  • Mycoplasma genitalium
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  • men
  • urethritis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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