Advances in monitoring for acute spinal cord injury: a narrative review of current literature

Yohannes Tsehay, Carly Weber-Levine, Timothy Kim, Alejandro Chara, Safwan Alomari, Tolulope Awosika, Ann Liu, Jeffrey Ehresman, Kurt Lehner, Brian Hwang, Andrew M. Hersh, Ian Suk, Eli Curry, Fariba Aghabaglou, Yinuo Zeng, Amir Manbachi, Nicholas Theodore

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition that affects about 17,000 individuals every year in the United States, with approximately 294,000 people living with the ramifications of the initial injury. After the initial primary injury, SCI has a secondary phase during which the spinal cord sustains further injury due to ischemia, excitotoxicity, immune-mediated damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, and oxidative stress. The multifaceted injury progression process requires a sophisticated injury-monitoring technique for an accurate assessment of SCI patients. In this narrative review, we discuss SCI monitoring modalities, including pressure probes and catheters, micro dialysis, electrophysiologic measures, biomarkers, and imaging studies. The optimal next-generation injury monitoring setup should include multiple modalities and should integrate the data to produce a final simplified assessment of the injury and determine markers of intervention to improve patient outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1372-1387
Number of pages16
JournalSpine Journal
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2022


  • Advanced monitoring for spinal cord injury
  • Artificial intelligence
  • Biomarkers
  • Electrophysiology
  • Imaging
  • MRI
  • Machine learning
  • Spinal cord injury
  • Ultrasound

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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