Advanced circuit and cellular imaging methods in nonhuman primates

Stephen L. Macknik, Robert G. Alexander, Olivya Caballero, Jordi Chanovas, Kristina J. Nielsen, Nozomi Nishimura, Chris B. Schaffer, Hamutal Slovin, Amit Babayoff, Ravid Barak, Shiming Tang, Niansheng Ju, Azadeh Yazdan-Shahmorad, Jose Manuel Alonso, Eugene Malinskiy, Susana Martinez-Conde

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Novel genetically encoded tools and advanced microscopy methods have revolutionized neural circuit analyses in insects and rodents over the last two decades. Whereas numerous technical hurdles originally barred these methodologies from success in nonhuman primates (NHPs), current research has startedto overcomethose barriers. In some cases, methodological advances developed with NHPs have even surpassed their precursors. One such advance includes new ultra-large imaging windows on NHP cortex, which are larger than the entire rodent brain and allow analysis unprecedented ultra-large-scale circuits. NHP imaging chambers now remain patent for periods longer than a mouse's lifespan, allowing for long-term all-optical interrogation of identified circuits and neurons over timeframes that are relevant to human cognitive development. Here we present some recent imaging advances brought forth by research teams using macaques and marmosets. These include technical developments in optogenetics; voltage-, calcium- A nd glutamatesensitive dye imaging; two-photon and wide-field optical imaging; viral delivery; and genetic expression of indicators and light-activated proteins that result in the visualization of tens of thousands of identified cortical neurons in NHPs. We describe a subset of the many recent advances in circuit and cellular imagingtools in NHPsfocusing here primarily onthe research presented duringthe corresponding mini-symposium at the 2019 Society for Neuroscience annual meeting.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8267-8274
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Neuroscience
Issue number42
StatePublished - Oct 16 2019


  • Adeno-Associated Virus
  • Cortical Mapping
  • Optogenetics
  • Prosthetic Vision
  • Two-Photon Microscopy
  • Voltage-Sensitive Dye Imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Neuroscience


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