Adherence to Plant-Based Diets and Risk of CKD Progression and All-Cause Mortality: Findings From the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study

CRIC Study Investigators

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Rationale & Objective: Studies have shown that generally healthy individuals who consume diets rich in plant foods have a lower risk of incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the prospective associations of plant-based diets with the risk of CKD progression and all-cause mortality in individuals with CKD. Study Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting & Participants: 2,539 participants with CKD recruited between 2003-2008 into the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. Exposure: Responses on the Diet History Questionnaire were used to calculate scores for the overall plant-based diet index, healthy plant-based diet index, and unhealthy plant-based diet index. Outcome: (1) CKD progression defined as ≥50% estimated glomerular filtration rate decline from baseline or kidney replacement therapy (dialysis, transplant) and (2) all-cause mortality. Analytical Approach: Cox proportional hazards models to compute hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for lifestyle, socioeconomic, and clinical covariates. Results: There were 977 CKD progression events and 836 deaths during a median follow-up period of 7 and 12 years, respectively. Participants with the highest versus lowest adherence to overall plant-based diets and healthy plant-based diets had 26% (HR, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.62-0.88], P trend < 0.001) and 21% (HR, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.66-0.95], P trend = 0.03) lower risks of all-cause mortality, respectively. Each 10-point higher score of unhealthy plant-based diets was modestly associated with a higher risk of CKD progression (HR, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.03-1.25) and all-cause mortality (HR, 1.11 [95% CI, 1.00-1.23). Limitations: Self-reported diet may be subject to measurement error. Conclusions: Adherence to an overall plant-based diet and a healthy plant-based diet is associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality among individuals with CKD. An unhealthy plant-based was associated with an elevated risk of CKD progression and all-cause mortality. Plain-Language Summary: Plant-based diets are healthful dietary patterns that have been linked to a lower risk of chronic diseases. However, the impact of plant-based diets on clinical outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not well established. In 2,539 individuals with CKD, we examined the associations of adherence to 3 different types of plant-based diets with the risks of CKD progression and all-cause mortality. We found that following an overall plant-based diet and a healthy plant-based diet was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality. By contrast, following an unhealthy plant-based diet was associated with a higher risk of CKD progression and all-cause mortality. These results suggest that the quality of plant-based diets may be important for CKD management.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)624-635
Number of pages12
JournalAmerican Journal of Kidney Diseases
Volume83
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2024

Keywords

  • Chronic kidney disease
  • death
  • dietary intake
  • end-stage renal disease
  • morbidity/mortality
  • plant-based diet
  • plant-based protein

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology

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