Adaptive changes in dynamic properties of human disparity-induced vergence

M. Takagi, H. Oyamada, H. Abe, D. S. Zee, H. Hasebe, A. Miki, T. Usui, T. Bando

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

49 Scopus citations


Purpose. Vergence eye movements undergo adaptive recalibration in response to a training stimulus in which the initial disparity is changed just after vergence begins (the double-step paradigm). In the present study the changes in the dynamic properties of convergence, speed and acceleration, were examined by using this double-step paradigm, before and after adaptation. Methods. Four normal subjects participated. Three-dimensional visual stimuli were provided by a head-mounted display with two liquid crystal diode (LCD) panels. To induce adaptation, a double step of disparity was used: an initial step from distances of 2 to 1 m was followed by a second step to distances of 0.7 m ("increasing paradigm") or 1.4 m ("decreasing paradigm") after a constant period of 0.2 seconds. The dynamic properties of vergence were compared before and after 30 minutes of training with these paradigms. Results. Peak velocity of convergence became significantly greater (increasing paradigm) or smaller (decreasing paradigm) after 30 minutes' training. Changes in the dynamic properties of convergence were also obvious in phase-plane (velocity versus position) and main sequence (peak velocity versus amplitude) plots. Further analysis revealed that adaptive increases in vergence velocity were accomplished by an increase in the duration of the acceleration period, whereas adaptive decreases were induced by a decrease in the maximum value of acceleration. Conclusions. The pattern of change in the dynamic characteristics of vergence after adaptation was similar to that of saccades and the initiation of pursuit eye movements, suggesting common neural mechanisms for adaptive changes in the open-loop control of eye movements.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1479-1486
Number of pages8
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Issue number7
StatePublished - 2001
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience


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