Acetazolamide: Maternal toxicity, pattern of malformations, and litter effect

Lewis B. Holmes, Hiroaki Kawanishi, Alvaro Munoz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


Thirty litters of C57BL 6J mice were administered intraperitoneally one of four doses (0, 500, 750, and 1,000 mg/kg maternal weight) of acetazolamide on day 9 of gestation. The fetuses were removed on day 18 and fixed, stained, cleared, and examined for the pattern of malformations. The forelimb postaxial limb deficiency was the most common abnormality, but forelimb postaxial polydactyly and a postaxial deficiency in the hindlimb were also observed. Males were significantly more likely to be malformed than females at all doses, in contrast to the predominance of females observed in rat fetuses exposed to acetazolamide (Scott et al.: Teratology 6:239–240, '73). The occurrence of limb malformations did not correlate with maternal weight loss, the birth weight of the fetus, or the position of the fetus in the uterus. A “litter effect” was demonstrated in that there was a nonuniform distribution of litters with different proportions of malformed fetuses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)335-342
Number of pages8
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1988
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Embryology
  • Toxicology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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