Acetazolamide-Challenged Arterial Spin Labeling Detects Augmented Cerebrovascular Reserve After Surgery for Moyamoya

Vaishnavi L. Rao, Laura M. Prolo, Jonathan D. Santoro, Michael Zhang, Jennifer L. Quon, Michael Jin, Aditya Iyer, Vivek Yedavalli, Robert M. Lober, Gary K. Steinberg, Kristen W. Yeom, Gerald A. Grant

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) inversely correlates with stroke risk in children with Moyamoya disease and may be improved by revascularization surgery. We hypothesized that acetazolamide-challenged arterial spin labeling MR perfusion quantifies augmentation of CVR achieved by revascularization and correlates with currently accepted angiographic scoring criteria. Methods: We retrospectively identified pediatric patients with Moyamoya disease or syndrome who received cerebral revascularization at ≤18 years of age between 2012 and 2019 at our institution. Using acetazolamide-challenged arterial spin labeling, we compared postoperative CVR to corresponding preoperative values and to postoperative perfusion outcomes classified by Matsushima grading. Results: In this cohort, 32 patients (17 males) with Moyamoya underwent 29 direct and 16 indirect extracranial-intracranial bypasses at a median 9.7 years of age (interquartile range, 7.6-15.7). Following revascularization, median CVR increased within the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery territory (6.9 mL/100 g per minute preoperatively versus 16.5 mL/100 g per minute postoperatively, P<0.01). No differences were observed in the ipsilateral anterior cerebral artery (P=0.13) and posterior cerebral artery (P=0.48) territories. Postoperative CVR was higher in the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery territories of patients who achieved Matsushima grade A perfusion, in comparison to those with grades B or C (25.8 versus 17.5 mL, P=0.02). The method of bypass (direct or indirect) did not alter relative increases in CVR (8 versus 3.8 mL/100 g per minute, P=0.7). Conclusions: Acetazolamide-challenged arterial spin labeling noninvasively quantifies augmentation of CVR following surgery for Moyamoya disease and syndrome.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1354-1362
Number of pages9
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2022


  • acetazolamide
  • internal carotid artery
  • perfusion
  • spin labels
  • temporal arteries

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Advanced and Specialized Nursing


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