Accuracy of real-time MR temperature mapping in the brain: A comparison of fast sequences

A. Kickhefel, Jörg Roland, Clifford Weiss, Fritz Schick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

53 Scopus citations


Purpose: To compare magnetic resonance (MR) thermometry based on the proton resonance frequency (PRF) method using a single shot echoplanar imaging (ss EPI) sequence to both of the standard sequences, gradient echo (GRE) and segmented echoplanar imaging (seg EPI) in the in vivo human brain, at 1.5T and 3T. Material and methods: Repetitive MR thermometry was performed on the brain of six volunteers using GRE, seg EPI, and ss EPI sequences on whole-body 1.5T and 3T clinical systems using comparable acquisition parameters. Phase stability and temperature data precision in the human head were determined over 12 min for the three sequences at both field strengths. An ex-vivo swine skeletal muscle model was used to evaluate temperature accuracy of the ss EPI sequence during heating by high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Results: In-vivo examinations of brain revealed an average temperature precision of 0.37 °C/0.39 °C/0.16 °C at 3T for the GRE/seg EPI/ss EPI sequences. At 1.5T, a precision of 0.58 °C/0.63 °C/0.21 °C was achieved. In the ex-vivo swine model, a strong correlation of temperature data derived using ss EPI and GRE sequences was found with a temperature deviation <1 °C. Conclusion: The ss EPI sequence was the fastest and the most precise sequence for MR thermometry, with significantly higher accuracy compared to GRE.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)192-201
Number of pages10
JournalPhysica Medica
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Brain
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Proton resonance frequency (PRF)
  • Real-time thermometry
  • Temperature precision and accuracy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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