A twisted hand: bHLH protein phosphorylation and dimerization regulate limb development

Juanliang Cai, Ethylin Wang Jabs

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (SCS), a human autosomal dominant condition with limb defects and craniosynostosis, is caused by haploinsufficiency of TWIST1, a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor. Until recently, the molecular pathogenesis of the limb defects in SCS has not been well understood. Now, Firulli et al. show in mouse and chick that ectopic expression of a related bHLH protein, Hand2, results in phenocopies of the limb defects caused by Twist1 loss-of-function mutations. These two proteins interact in a dosage-dependent antagonistic manner, and both can be regulated through phosphorylation at conserved helix I amino acid residues. These findings provide an important link between the misregulation of Twist1 dimerization and the limb phenotypes observed in SCS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1102-1106
Number of pages5
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2005

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience (miscellaneous)
  • Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Developmental Biology
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Plant Science


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