A Systematic Review of the Hill-Bone Compliance to Blood Pressure Therapy Scale

Yvonne Commodore-Mensah, Sabianca Delva, Oluwabunmi Ogungbe, Lauren A. Smulcer, Sally Rives, Cheryl R.Dennison Himmelfarb, Miyong T. Kim, Lee Bone, David Levine, Martha N. Hill

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Background: Poor medication adherence hampers hypertension control and increases the risk of adverse health outcomes. Medication adherence can be measured with direct and indirect methods. The Hill-Bone Compliance to High Blood Pressure Therapy (HBCHBPT) Scale, one of the most popular adherence measures, indirectly assesses adherence to hypertension therapy in three behavioral domains: appointment keeping, diet and medication adherence. Aim: To synthesize evidence on the use of the HBCHBPT Scale, including psychometric properties, utility in diverse patient populations, and directions for future clinical use and research. Methods: We searched electronic databases, specifically CINAHL, PubMed, PsychInfo, Embase, and Web of Science. We included original studies that used the HBCHBPT Scale or its subscales to measure a health outcome, or methodological studies involving translations and validations of the scale. We extracted and synthesized data following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Results: Fifty studies were included in this review, 44 on hypertension, two on diabetes, and others on other chronic conditions. The scale was successfully translated into numerous languages and used in descriptive and intervention studies. The scale demonstrated sound psychometric properties (Cronbach’s α coefficient 0.75) and sensitivity to capture intervention effects when used to evaluate the effectiveness of high blood pressure adherence interventions. The medication-taking subscale of HBCHBPT performs best and is widely used in diverse contexts to assess medication adherence for chronic conditions. Conclusion: The HBCHBPT Scale has high versatility globally and has been used in various settings by various healthcare worker cadres and researchers. The scale has several strengths, including high adherence phenotyping capabilities, contributing to the paradigm shift toward personalized health care.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2401-2420
Number of pages20
JournalPatient Preference and Adherence
StatePublished - 2023


  • Hill Bone Medication Adherence Scale
  • Hill-Bone Compliance to Blood Pressure Therapy Scale
  • high blood pressure
  • hypertension
  • medication adherence
  • treatment adherence
  • treatment compliance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics (miscellaneous)
  • Health Policy
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)

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