A Survey of Hospitalized Trauma Patients in Hemorrhage Control Education: Are Trauma Victims Willing to Stop the Bleed?

Bonnylin Van Winkle, Sandra R. DiBrito, Neda Amini, Matthew J. Levy, Elliott R. Haut

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The Stop the Bleed (STB) campaign was developed in part to educate the lay public about hemorrhage control techniques aimed at reducing preventable trauma deaths. Studies have shown this training increases bystanders’ confidence and willingness to provide aid. One high-risk group might be better solicited to take the course: individuals who have been a victim of previous trauma, as high rates of recidivism after trauma are well-established. Given this group's risk for recurrent injury, we evaluated their attitudes toward STB concepts. Methods: We surveyed trauma patients admitted to 3 urban trauma centers in Baltimore from January 8, 2020 to March 14, 2020. The survey was terminated prematurely due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Trauma patients hospitalized on any inpatient unit were invited to complete the survey via an electronic tablet. The survey asked about demographics, prior exposure to life-threatening hemorrhage and first aid training, and willingness to help a person with major bleeding. The Johns Hopkins IRB approved waiver of consent for this study. Results: Fifty-six patients completed the survey. The majority of respondents had been hospitalized before (92.9%) and had witnessed severe bleeding (60.7%). The majority had never taken a first aid course (60.7%) nor heard of STB (83.9%). Most respondents would be willing to help someone with severe bleeding form a car crash (98.2%) or gunshot wound (94.6%). Conclusions: Most patients admitted for trauma had not heard about Stop the Bleed, but stated willingness to respond to someone injured with major bleeding. Focusing STB education on individuals at high-risk for trauma recidivism may be particularly effective in spreading the message and skills of STB.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)469-473
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Surgical Research
StatePublished - Aug 2021


  • Bleeding
  • Hemmorhage
  • Stop the Bleed
  • Survey
  • Tourniquet
  • Trauma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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