A Surrogate System for Informed Consent

Norman C. Fost

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Since “informed consent” is frequently obtained in a clinical setting where the patient is anxious and overwhelmed with feelings, toward the physician, of awe, trust, and dependency, it is often of dubious value in protecting human subjects. We devised, as a possible alternative mechanism for uncovering patient views toward a specific research protocol, a surrogate system of consent. The surrogates’ responses seemed more candid and diverse than the responses one usually hears in the “real” clinical setting. Potential applications of such a system lie in further study of the consent process, and as a means for individual investigators to better gauge consumer attitudes toward specific projects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)800-803
Number of pages4
JournalJAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association
Issue number7
StatePublished - Aug 18 1975

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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