Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a growing epidemic owing to an increasingly obese and aging patient population. Making the diagnosis of HFpEF is often challenging because patients frequently have multiple comorbidities and alternative reasons for dyspnea and exercise intolerance, symptoms that are hallmark to the disease. Additionally, a universal diagnostic algorithm and definition of HFpEF is lacking. The treatment of HFpEF has been equally challenging, as there remain exceedingly few therapies show to improve survival in HFpEF and thus management to date has focused on intensive optimization of HFpEF risk factors. In this review, we highlight a stepwise approach to the diagnosis and treatment of HFpEF including (1) how to establish a clinical diagnosis of HFpEF, (2) when to refer for invasive diagnostic testing, (3) current treatment approaches to HFpEF including pharmacologic, nonpharmacologic, and risk factor modification interventions, and (4) when to refer to a dedicated HFpEF center or advanced heart failure specialist. With this systematic stepwise approach to HFpEF diagnosis and management, we aim to improve accurate diagnosis of the disease as well as raise awareness of available therapeutic options for this challenging patient population.
- Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction
- exercise stress test
- natriuretic peptides
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine