A review of the economic evidence of typhoid fever and typhoid vaccines

K. Luthra, E. Watts, F. Debellut, C. Pecenka, N. Bar-Zeev, D. Constenla

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Typhoid places a substantial economic burden on low- and middle-income countries. We performed a literature review and critical overview of typhoid-related economic issues to inform vaccine introduction. We searched 4 literature databases, covering 2000-2017, to identify typhoid-related cost-of-illness (COI) studies, cost-of-delivery studies, cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs), and demand forecast studies. Manual bibliographic searches of reviews revealed studies in the gray literature. Planned studies were identified in conference proceedings and through partner organization outreach. We identified 29 published, unpublished, and planned studies. Published COI studies revealed a substantial burden in Asia, with hospitalization costs alone ranging from $159 to $636 (in 2016 US$) in India, but there was less evidence for the burden in Africa. Cost-of-delivery studies are largely unpublished, but 1 study found that $671 000 in government investments would avert $60 000 in public treatment costs. CEA evidence was limited, but generally found targeted vaccination programs to be cost-effective. This review revealed insufficient economic evidence for vaccine introduction. Countries considering vaccine introduction should have access to relevant economic evidence to aid in decision-making and planning. Planned studies will fill many of the existing gaps in the literature.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S83-S95
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
StatePublished - Mar 7 2019


  • cost of illness
  • cost of vaccine delivery
  • cost-effectiveness analysis
  • typhoid fever
  • vaccination

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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