A Review of Anesthesia Simulation in Low-Income Countries

Oleg Turkot, Michael C. Banks, Seung Woo Lee, Adam Dodson, Shirley Duarte, Mwemezi Kaino, Howard Nelson-Williams, Serkan Toy, John Sampson

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Purpose of Review: Anesthesia workforce gaps in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) can hinder safe surgical care. Several countries have fewer than one anesthesiologist per million population and some have fewer than two anesthesiologists nationally. Limited apprenticeship opportunities and inadequate supervision present serious challenges in these locations. Although simulation training could help disseminate expert guidance, the high cost, technical challenges, and varied approaches limit application. We reviewed the literature on cost-efficient and effective simulation training programs for anesthesia workforces in LMICs. Recent Findings: Publications relevant to anesthesia simulation in these countries are limited but include anesthesia skill gap identification, technical skill training, and scenario management. Summary: High-cost, high-technology simulation available in high-resource countries is often impractical in LMICs. We identified low-cost approaches that are typically used to assess skill deficiencies and develop nontechnical and technical skills. Future studies should evaluate optimal modalities and equipment for greatest impact.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalCurrent Anesthesiology Reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 15 2019


  • Africa
  • Critical care
  • LMIC
  • Nurse
  • Safe surgery
  • Training

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine


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