A randomized trial of intensive outpatient (IOP) vs. standard outpatient (OP) buprenorphine treatment for African Americans

Shannon Gwin Mitchell, Jan Gryczynski, Robert P. Schwartz, Kevin E. O'Grady, Yngvild K. Olsen, Jerome H. Jaffe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


Background: Buprenorphine is increasingly being used in community-based treatment programs, but little is known about the optimal level of psychosocial counseling in these settings. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of OP and IOP level counseling when provided as part of buprenorphine treatment for opioid-dependent African Americans. Methods: Participants were African American men and women starting buprenorphine treatment at one of two community-based clinics (N= 300). Participants were randomly assigned to OP or IOP. Measures at baseline, 3- and 6-month included the primary outcome of DSM-IV opioid and cocaine dependence criteria, as well as additional outcomes of illicit opioid and cocaine use (urine test and self-report), criminal activity, retention in treatment, Quality of Life, Addiction Severity Index composite scores, and HIV risk behaviors. Results: Participants assigned to OP received, on average, 3.67 (SD= 1.30). h of counseling per active week in treatment. IOP participants received an average of 5.23 (SD= 1.68). h of counseling per active week (less than the anticipated 9. h per week of counseling). Both groups showed substantial improvement over a 6-month period on nearly all measures considered. There were no significant differences between groups in meeting diagnostic criteria for opioid (p= .67) or cocaine dependence (p= .63). There were no significant between group differences on any of the other outcomes. A secondary analysis restricting the sample to participants meeting DSM-IV criteria for baseline cocaine dependence also revealed no significant between-group differences (all ps. >. .05). Conclusions: Buprenorphine patients receiving OP and IOP levels of care both show short-term improvements.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)222-229
Number of pages8
JournalDrug and alcohol dependence
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • African Americans
  • Buprenorphine
  • CIDI-2
  • IOP
  • Quality of life

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Pharmacology (medical)


Dive into the research topics of 'A randomized trial of intensive outpatient (IOP) vs. standard outpatient (OP) buprenorphine treatment for African Americans'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this