A randomized, community trial of intensive sexually transmitted disease control for AIDS prevention, Rakai, Uganda

Maria J. Wawer, Ronald H. Gray, Nelson K. Sewankambo, David Serwadda, Lynn Paxton, Seth Berkley, Denise McNairn, Fred Wabwire-Mangen, Chuanjun Li, Fred Nalugoda, Noah Kiwanuka, Thomas Lutalo, Ronald Brookmeyer, Robert Kelly, Thomas C. Quinn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

187 Scopus citations


Objective: To describe the design and first-round survey results of a trial of intensive sexually transmitted disease (STD) control to reduce HIV-1 incidence. Study design: Randomized, controlled, community-based trial in Rakai District, Uganda. Methods: In this ongoing study, 56 communities were grouped into 10 clusters designed to encompass social/sexual networks; clusters within blocks were randomly assigned to the intervention or control arm. Every 10 months, all consenting resident adults aged 15-59 years are visited in the home for interview and sample collection (serological sample, urine, and, in the case of women, self-administered vaginal swabs). Sera are tested for HIV-1, syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomonas and bacterial vaginosis. Following interview, all consenting adults are offered directly observed, single oral dose treatment (STD treatment in the intervention arm, anthelminthic and iron-folate in the control arm). Treatment is administered irrespective of symptoms or laboratory testing (mass treatment strategy). Both arms receive identical health education, condom and serological counseling services. Results: In the first home visit round, the study enrolled 5834 intervention and 5784 control arm subjects. Compliance with interview, sample collection and treatment was high in both arms (over 90%). Study arm populations were comparable with respect to sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics, and baseline HIV and STD rates. The latter were high: 16.9% of all subjects were HIV-positive, 10.0% had syphilis, and 23.8% of women had trichomonas and 50.9% had bacterial vaginosis. Conclusions: Testing the effects of STD control on AIDS prevention is feasible in this Ugandan setting.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1211-1225
Number of pages15
Issue number10
StatePublished - Jul 9 1998


  • AIDS prevention
  • Randomized controlled trial
  • STD/HIV prevalence
  • STF mass treatment
  • Sexually transmitted disease (STD) control
  • Uganda

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Infectious Diseases


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