A porcine model for laparoscopic adrenalectomy

A. Park, M. Gagner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has been successfully performed and described in humans. Though it is presently not widely employed it offers tremendous potential for adrenal surgery. It remains, however, an advanced technique requiring demonstration and practice. The aim of this study is to develop a porcine model of adrenalectomy for teaching and advancing the technique applicable to human surgery. Five female pigs weighing 10-20 kg underwent bilateral adrenalectomy by the lateral approach using endotracheal intubation. The left adrenal was resected with the pig in the right decubitus position. The animal was repositioned to left decubitus and the right adrenal was resected. In each case four 10-mm trochars were placed over the respective flanks. There was no need to mobilize the colon or liver (in the pig model). The peritoneum over each gland was incised and the gland dissected in a cephalocaudal manner. The vessels were ligated and divided particularly those from the vena cava. Upon completion blood loss (<100 cc) and operating times (mean 60 min for the left and 90 min for the right) were assessed and the animal was sacrificed. The glands were weighed (mean 1.23 g R and 1.15 g L) and measured. Using this model, experience is gained in positioning the subject as well as trocars, in fine dissection in a lateral orientation, and in techniques of hemostasis. Although porcine and human adrenal anatomy differ in some details the pig constitutes an excellent model for the development of the technical experience required to perform adrenalectomy in humans.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)807-810
Number of pages4
JournalSurgical endoscopy
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1995
Externally publishedYes


  • Adrenal surgery
  • Laparoscopic adrenalectomy
  • Porcine model

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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