A multicomponent behavioral intervention for smoking cessation during pregnancy: A nonconcurrent multiple-baseline design

Xiaozhong Wen, Rina D. Eiden, Faye E. Justicia-Linde, Youfa Wang, Stephen T. Higgins, Nicolas Thor, Arsalan Haghdel, Ariel R. Peters, Leonard H. Epstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Given serious consequences of maternal smoking, we aimed to develop and test a multicomponent behavioral intervention to enhance smoking cessation during pregnancy. In this nonconcurrent, multiple-baseline intervention pilot study, 48 daily smoking pregnant women (mean 13.7 weeks of gestation) were recruited from Buffalo, NY, USA. Upon completion of the repeated baseline smoking monitoring (up to 3 weeks), 30 continuous smokers received a contingent fnancial incentive-based intervention with three additional components (education and counseling, monitoring and feedback, and family support). After the quit date, participants met with counselors (~1 hr/visit) daily for 2 weeks and twice a week for another 6 weeks. Twenty-one out of 30 participants quit smoking completely (verifed by urine cotinine) after receiving the intervention, and the other nine nonquitters decreased smoking substantially. The estimated smoking cessation rate was 70.0% (21/30) at the second week of the intervention, and 63.3% (19/30) at the conclusion of the 8-week intervention assuming the dropouts as smoking. In interrupted time series analysis, the mean daily number of cigarettes smoked among quitters decreased by 6.52, 5.34, and 4.67 among early, delayed, and late intervention groups, respectively. Quitters' mean urine cotinine level maintained stably high before the intervention but decreased rapidly to the nonsmoking range once the intervention was initiated. Most participants (85.7%) reported meeting or exceeding expectations, and 100% would recommend the program to others. This pilot multicomponent intervention was feasible and acceptable to most participants, resulting in a high smoking cessation rate among pregnant smokers who were unlikely to quit spontaneously.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)308-318
Number of pages11
JournalTranslational behavioral medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 2019


  • Contingency management
  • Incentives
  • Multicomponent
  • Multiple baseline
  • Pregnancy
  • Smoking cessation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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