A controlled trial of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction in healthy, normal-weight, middle-aged adults

Kim S. Stote, David J. Baer, Karen Spears, David R. Paul, G. Keith Harris, William V. Rumpler, Pilar Strycula, Samer S. Najjar, Luigi Ferrucci, Donald K. Ingram, Dan L. Longo, Mark P. Mattson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

179 Scopus citations


Background: Although consumption of 3 meals/d is the most common pattern of eating in industrialized countries, a scientific rationale for this meal frequency with respect to optimal health is lacking. A diet with less meal frequency can improve the health and extend the lifespan of laboratory animals, but its effect on humans has never been tested. Objective: A pilot study was conducted to establish the effects of a reduced-meal-frequency diet on health indicators in healthy, normal-weight adults. Design: The study was a randomized crossover design with two 8-wk treatment periods. During the treatment periods, subjects consumed all of the calories needed for weight maintenance in either 3 meals/d or 1 meal/d. Results: Subjects who completed the study maintained their body weight within 2 kg of their initial weight throughout the 6-mo period. There were no significant effects of meal frequency on heart rate, body temperature, or most of the blood variables measured. However, when consuming 1 meal/d, subjects had a significant increase in hunger; a significant modification of body composition, including reductions in fat mass; significant increases in blood pressure and in total, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations; and a significant decrease in concentrations of cortisol. Conclusions: Normal-weight subjects are able to comply with a 1 meal/d diet. When meal frequency is decreased without a reduction in overall calorie intake, modest changes occur in body composition, some cardiovascular disease risk factors, and hematologic variables. Diurnal variations may affect outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)981-988
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Blood pressure
  • Caloric restriction
  • Cholesterol metabolism
  • Controlled diet
  • Intermittent fasting
  • Meal frequency
  • Normal-weight adults

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Food Science


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