A contemplated revision of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory

Robert R. McCrae, Paul T. Costa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

540 Scopus citations


Previous item factor analyses and readability analyses suggested that 14 of the 60 items in the NEO Five-Factor Inventory might usefully be replaced. New analyses in high school ( N =1959) and adult ( N =1492) samples led to the selection of new items from the remaining pool of Revised NEO Personality Inventory items. The resulting scales showed modest improvements in reliability and factor structure, and equivalent validity. These new scales should be appropriate for most respondents age 14 and up. However, continued use of the current instrument is also reasonable for most applications. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)587-596
Number of pages10
JournalPersonality and Individual Differences
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Adolescents
  • Factor analysis
  • Five-Factor Model
  • Item analysis
  • Scale development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)


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