A comprehensive review of diagnostic imaging technologies to evaluate the retina and the optic disk

Asima Bajwa, Rabia Aman, Ashvini K. Reddy

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Ophthalmic imaging has undergone a revolution over the past 20 years with increasingly efficient and high-definition modalities now available. The use of wide-field retinal angiography, fundus autofluorescence, state-of-the-art spectral domain, and enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography has proven to be effective in this field. This comprehensive review is devoted to retinal and optic disk imaging modalities and their clinical implications. It is based on the published literature in the field of ophthalmic imaging with a focus on recent advances. Ophthalmic imaging plays a crucial role in the management of patients with both isolated retinal disease and systemic diseases with ocular manifestations. Evolving technology enables imaging of ocular disease in vivo, facilitating objective assessment of disease progression and response to treatment. These latest technical improvements in ophthalmic imaging are now a part of standard ophthalmic assessment in academic centers and most private practices. In the coming years, further advances may improve diagnostic sensitivity and enable cost-effective screening of large populations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)733-755
Number of pages23
JournalInternational Ophthalmology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 31 2015


  • Fluorescein angiography
  • Indocyanine green angiography
  • Monochromatic fundus imaging
  • Multicolor fundus imaging
  • Optical coherence tomography
  • Ultra wide field imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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