In this paper, we adopt 3D Convolutional Neural Networks to segment volumetric medical images. Although deep neural networks have been proven to be very effective on many 2D vision tasks, it is still challenging to apply them to 3D tasks due to the limited amount of annotated 3D data and limited computational resources. We propose a novel 3D-based coarse-to-fine framework to effectively and efficiently tackle these challenges. The proposed 3D-based framework outperforms the 2D counterpart to a large margin since it can leverage the rich spatial information along all three axes. We conduct experiments on two datasets which include healthy and pathological pancreases respectively, and achieve the current state-of-the-art in terms of Dice-Sorensen Coefficient (DSC). On the NIH pancreas segmentation dataset, we outperform the previous best by an average of over 2%, and the worst case is improved by 7% to reach almost 70%, which indicates the reliability of our framework in clinical applications.