A 12-month controlled trial of methadone medical maintenance integrated into an adaptive treatment model

Van L. King, Michael S. Kidorf, Kenneth B. Stoller, Robert Schwartz, Kenneth Kolodner, Robert K. Brooner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


Methadone medical maintenance (MMM) reduces the reporting schedule for stable and well-functioning methadone maintenance patients to once a month, with counseling provided by medical staff. We report on the 12-month outcomes of 92 highly stable methadone maintenance patients randomly assigned to one of three study conditions: routine care, MMM at the methadone maintenance program, and MMM at a physician's office. Methadone medical maintenance patients received a 28-day supply of methadone, whereas routine care patients received five or six take-home methadone doses each week. All patients performed a medication recall once a month and submitted two urine samples each month. An adaptive stepped-care system of treatment intensification was used for patients who failed recall or who had drug-positive urine specimens. Seventy-seven patients completed the 12-month study period. Dropout was caused primarily by problems with handling methadone and disliking the recall frequency. There were low rates of drug use or failed medication recall. Treatment satisfaction was high in all groups, but the MMM patients initiated more new employment or family/social activities than did routine care patients over the study period. The stepped-care approach was well tolerated and matched patients to an appropriate step of service within a continuum of treatment intensity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)385-393
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2006


  • Adaptive treatment
  • Medical maintenance
  • Methadone
  • Stepped care

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Phychiatric Mental Health
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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