3-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Guided Pelvic Floor Dissection for Bladder Exstrophy: A Single Arm Trial

Heather N. Di Carlo, Mahir Maruf, Eric Z. Massanyi, Bhavik Shah, Aylin Tekes, John P. Gearhart

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


We determined the safety and efficacy of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging guided surgical reconstruction of bladder exstrophy for the identification of the urogenital diaphragm fibers and the thickened muscular attachments between the posterior urethra, bladder plate and pubic rami.Materials and Methods:Institutional review board and U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval was obtained for the use of Brainlab (Munich, Germany) intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging guided navigation of the pelvic floor anatomy during closure of classic bladder exstrophy and cloacal exstrophy at our institution. Preoperative pelvic 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging was obtained 1 day before closure in patients undergoing pelvic osteotomies. Intraoperative registration was performed after preoperative planning with a pediatric radiologist using 5 anatomical landmarks immediately before initiation of surgery. Accuracy of pelvic anatomy identification was assessed by 2 pediatric urological surgeons and 1 pediatric radiologist.Results:In 43 patients with classic bladder exstrophy and 4 patients with cloacal exstrophy closed at our institution, Brainlab technology was used successfully to navigate and guide the dissection of the pelvic floor intraoperatively. In all patients there was 100% accuracy in the correlation of gross anatomical landmarks with 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging identified landmarks intraoperatively, and all patients had successful closure without any major complications.Conclusions:Brainlab intraoperative 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging guided pelvic floor navigation and dissection is an effective way to accurately identify pelvic anatomy during classic bladder exstrophy and cloacal exstrophy closure. This technology offers a unique opportunity for surgical skill education in this complex reconstructive operation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)406-412
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Urology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 1 2019


  • bladder exstrophy
  • cloaca
  • computer-assisted
  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


Dive into the research topics of '3-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Guided Pelvic Floor Dissection for Bladder Exstrophy: A Single Arm Trial'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this