255th ENMC workshop: Muscle imaging in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. 15th January, 16th January and 22nd January 2021 – virtual meeting and hybrid meeting on 9th and 19th September 2022 in Hoofddorp, The Netherlands

ENMC Muscle Imaging in Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies workshop study group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The 255th ENMC workshop on Muscle Imaging in Idiopathic Inflammatory myopathies (IIM) aimed at defining recommendations concerning the applicability of muscle imaging in IIM. The workshop comprised of clinicians, researchers and people living with myositis. We aimed to achieve consensus on the following topics: a standardized protocol for the evaluation of muscle images in various types of IIMs; the exact parameters, anatomical localizations and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques; ultrasound as assessment tool in IIM; assessment methods; the pattern of muscle involvement in IIM subtypes; the application of MRI as biomarker in follow-up studies and clinical trials, and the place of MRI in the evaluation of swallowing difficulty and cardiac manifestations. The following recommendations were formulated: In patients with suspected IIM, muscle imaging is highly recommended to be part of the initial diagnostic workup and baseline assessment. MRI is the preferred imaging modality due to its sensitivity to both oedema and fat accumulation. Ultrasound may be used for suspected IBM. Repeat imaging should be considered if patients do not respond to treatment, if there is ongoing diagnostic uncertainty or there is clinical or laboratory evidence of disease relapse. Quantitative MRI is established as a sensitive biomarker in IBM and could be included as a primary or secondary outcome measure in early phase clinical trials, or as a secondary outcome measure in late phase clinical trials. Finally, a research agenda was drawn up.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)800-816
Number of pages17
JournalNeuromuscular Disorders
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology
  • Genetics(clinical)
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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